Understanding the Cat5 Cable

Category 5, or simply Cat5 Cable, is an Ethernet cable that is commonly used in networking. It consists of four twisted pairs of copper wires and is terminated by an RJ-45 connector.

The term Cat5 is a standard defined by the Electronic Industries Association and Telecommunications Industry Association or EIA/TIA as requested by the Computer Communications Industry Association in 1985. As a fifth generation of twisted pair, it can support a fast speed of 100 Mbps and frequencies of up to 100 MHz. It consists of 4 pairs of twisted copper wires and can be used for token ring, 1000Base-T, 100Base-T and ATM networking.

Computers that are hooked together in LAN (Local Area Network) use this cable. Just like other Ethernet cables, the Cat5 cable has a maximum length of 100 meters. Exceeding the length can cause an issue with the bridging of computers.

The Cat5 Structure

cat5 cableThe Cat5, as stated earlier, consists of 4 pairs of twisted copper wires, each of these with jacket or covering. They are called “twisted pair” due to the fact that each pair of wires is twisted together. This helps reduce external source signal interference from radio transmission signals or fluorescent light bulbs.

Although there are 4 twisted pairs of wire in the Cat5 cable, Fast Ethernet only use two pairs in communications. Newer specifications of this cable, also known as the Cat5 enhanced, or Cat5 e, utilized all four wire pairs and is used to support Gigabit Ethernet speed of up to 1000 Mbps.

Length of Wires

Cat5 twisted pair cables have two varieties: the solid and stranded. The solid variety supports longer runs and is use for office buildings’ wiring configurations. The stranded variety is more pliable and is used more on shorter-distance networking. These are usually considered as movable cabling.

One of the questions asked about Cat5 cables is regarding its length. Why is there a limit to the Cat5’s length?

As stated earlier, excess in length can cause network problems. Before the limitation was given, countless of test were conducted on the Cat5 cable under different circumstances. During these, it was found that it was possible to transmit data beyond the 100-meter cable length limit. This depends on the condition and the matching of network equipment. While there were successful attempts such as these, there were also those that resulted to poor network transmission. It showed slower network and less signal power to make data communication. To ensure successful data transmission, the 100 meter standard length was established. This is considered the safest maximum length for the Cat5.


Cat5 is used for both crossover and straight networking. In a crossover connection, a computer is connected to any computer or all computers in the network. Cable sockets makes this possible especially if a straight connection is used. Today, there are hubs used that allowed computers to be connected without crossing over cables. These allow computers to use only one Cat5 cable to connect and at the same time easily change from crossover to straight connection.

Cat5 cables can also be used in telephone connections and other electronic devices. This is not limited to computers only. Today, there are newer types of cables used in networking. However, Cat5 remains the most popular and widely used. This is due to both its affordability and its high speed support. At present, this type of cable continues to be tested and even developed to help exceed its present potential to data connection. This includes the hope of making the maximum length of the cable longer to further create a more effective data communication between computers.

Different Types of Baseball Trading Pins

Baseball trading pins vary in shapes, sizes, design, and additions. There are many different types of baseball trading pins that athletes and fans hunt down to add to their collection. As modern technology continues to evolve, makers and artists of these pins are given even more ideas on how to craft their products. Baseball teams turn to custom trading pins now when having their exclusive badge so they can design it depending on their preference.

Baseball Trading PinsBaseball trading pins play an important role in baseball leagues and tournaments. These little tokens depict acceptance and camaraderie within a team or the fans participating in the baseball craze. Some people attend trading events just to find the rarest and oldest kind of trading pins. Older trading pins are usually more expensive and they only come once in a blue moon. But if you’re a devoted pin collector and you have invested enough money for this hobby, it doesn’t hurt to shell out a bit of money for these pins.

Pin traders go the extra mile when hunting for baseball trading pins. They are experts when it comes to inspecting trading pins and their worth. The common rule in the pin trade-off is “bigger is better.” A large trading pin can be traded for a couple of normal pins depending on the deal. Custom trading pins ordered by baseball teams normally range from 1.75 to 2.5 inches. Larger pins also allow you to put additions to it such as glitters, danglers, spinners and sliders.

There are several types of baseball trading pins that you can opt for if you want a custom pin.

Soft enamel pin – this type of pin is usually the most affordable and can be around for a long haul. Also known as soft enamel cloisonné, this pin is an iron-based metal that is created with a die to engrave the design on the surface. Using enamel paint, the colors of the pin are put to the sunken spaces of the pin.

Offset digital pin – this pin also uses the die-struck process to produce the desired shape and an impeccable design. These pins are ideal for teams who want to feature images of their athletes or mascot to the design. The design is being protected by a clear epoxy which also adds a clear finish to the colors. Laser print technology is also applied to offset digital pins.

Photo etched pin – this is the type of pin that’s normally preferred by fans and collectors because it allows them to incorporate an image of their idols to the design. This pin has a smooth surface that enables a computer or a machine to engrave the image straight on to the metal. Enamel paint is used to add colors and make the design more vibrant. These pins are also sturdy and affordable.

Stock trading pin – unlike with the customized trading pins, the stock trading pin comes with a standard design and mold. This is the type of pin that is usually on display because it has a fixed design from the manufacturer.

When you have decided the type of trading pin that you will go for, it’s time to think of a design that will make the pins valuable and meaningful to you. Standard baseball teams include bats and baseball symbols to toughen the significance of their trading pins. If you are ordering a custom pin for yourself, make sure that the designs and symbols that you place on your pin is relevant to you and reflects your character. You can add the extras after you arrange the complete lay-out of your pin. You can put glitters to add elegance to your trading pin, or a dangler to state general information about your team. When you are opting for custom trading pins, sky’s the limit for the designs.

Do-It-Yourself PCB Fabrication

It is a wonderful opportunity to create a piece of technology that functions properly, the way you really want it to be. Because of this, many college students opt to study in Universities that specialized in degree programs such as Electronics and Electronics and Communication. However, if you want to practice electronics at home, you can do so. This way, you can take your creativity, resourcefulness, and other skills to the next level by creating or recreating electronic projects that you are interested in.

This article lets you in on one of the most cost efficient ways to do your own PCB fabrication.

f-3Planning your DIY PCB fabrication

Before you go out and buy the material that you think you need, you must first plan ahead. This way, you will purchase those that you need only and nothing more. It is a way to produce a cost efficient but definitely effective electronic device.

First off, think of what device you want to create or recreate. For example, you want to recreate a radio transistor. Carefully think out what components you will need in order to produce the required type of connection on the PCB. As you think about the device and the requirements for it to work, try to create a picture if it in your mind.

Next is to draw your schematic diagram. This is when your mental image of the device becomes necessary. Did you picture your device to be small or big? If you prefer a handier transistor radio, then you may need to sketch a smaller diagram. But you need to keep in mind that the smaller your schematic diagram is, the more elaborate and meticulous you should be in making the PCB.

While drawing the diagram, you should be aware of how many resistors, capacitors, diodes, and transistors are needed. Make way for an on and off switch. You may also want to add embellishments like led lights to indicate whether the device is on or not. Consider all of these things before you purchase anything.

The PCB fabrication procedure

The next step is to determine what etching method is the best for you. You can choose among four methods. This includes the acid etching method, UV etching method, mechanical or routing etching method, and the laser etching method. For homemade PCB, the most advisable is the Acid etching method.

In this method, materials are very much available in most hardware stores. However, this is also the slowest and the messiest. You can use Ferric Chloride or Ammonium Per sulphate. These two chemicals attack metals such as copper (the usual conductor surface of a PCB).

After purchasing a board, the acid of your choice, electronic components, and a permanent marker (for masking the needed portions of the copper surface), you are now ready to conduct your PCB fabrication.

Draw the layout of the schematic diagram on the copper surface of the PCB using the permanent marker. This way, the needed part will not be corroded by acid. Once you have drawn the layout, set it aside to dry. Meanwhile, mix the Ferric Chloride granules with warm water. The more diluted the solution is, the less effective it will be. Submerge the PCB you have prepared in the solution.

After a while, the unneeded portions of the copper surface will be removed. You can now drill holes on appropriate parts of your PCB. Drill holes on ends of copper surfaces, so that you can mount the necessary components.

Then, mount the components and solder it using a soldering iron and lead. Let it cool down for a while, and then conduct a test experiment. If it works, then you have successfully done your DIY PCB fabrication!

Golf Balls and Golf Myths

When Alan Shepard hit golf balls on the moon, he missed once and had the second ball land just a few feet away.Alan Shepard was still just an amateur golfer, albeit a lunar one. Mission control, being the helpful bloke that he was,gave out tips like “keep your head down”.This is one of the many common misconceptions surrounding golf.

Of course keeping one’s head down is a very logical golf instruction. Golf is a game of precision. The most minute irregular move or position could disrupt a good shot. Most people who knew the sport but have never been close to touching a golf club and even those who actually play will assume that when playing, it is always better to keep one’s head down. According to Bob Grossest, director of instruction at The Golf Academy by The Golf Club in Los Angeles, keeping one’s head down is one of the worst mistakes an amateur golfer could make. When a person keeps their head down when swinging, they restrict their lower body movement, which can cause swaying or sliding. Hitting the ball too soon or too late can also happen when the head is consciously being held down. Grossest said that the better alternative to keeping the head down is learning to manipulate and maintain natural spine angle and other body angles. This way, taking a swing is more comfortable for the golfer and the pivot is not restricted.

Even golf equipment is shrouded with the veil of misconception. People “test” golf ballsby having them bounce on hard surfaces, believing that the higher they bounce, the farther they will fly on the field. It is a fairly common misconception, as a tour to a sports equipment shop would more or less lead to finding a customer making golf balls bounce on the shop floor. However, this is not necessarily true. There are more factors influencing a flying ball that has been struck by a club head moving at a certain velocity than a ball slightly compressed by a hard surface and went against Earth’s gravity. The stress brought upon by the latter scenario is very minimal compared to the first scenario.Additionally, the projectile is an aspect that is not taken into consideration when the ball is just bouncing up and down.

gb-4Another misconception in golf equipment is that the shafts of golf clubs wear out and lose their stiffness.With the exception of damaged or rusted shafts, continuously using a decent-quality golf club will not alter their flex. This is because the stress put on the shaft of a club is not enough to cause metal fatigue in graphite or even steel shafts.

Golf enthusiasts and even professional golfers believe that great putting is what makes a professional better than the rest. After all, placing golf balls in their holes is the first and foremost objective of the game. Putting seems to be the most critical of hits since it is the last. Following this line of thinking, it must mean that better putting contributes most to the score advantage. However, a research conducted by a Columbia Business School professor debunked this widely believed myth.He observed that putting only contributes to 15% of the score lead for the Top 40 Tour players. Driving contributes to better score advantage at 28%, which is mostly due to closing in the distance between the hole and the ball but not necessarily, which has very little to do with accuracy. But what contributes most (by around 40%) is accuracy of the approach shot, because many shots are done from that range, statistically speaking.

These are just a few of common golf myths that most people, players and non-players, believe. There’s definitely a lot more out there. It now depends on you to distinguish between fact and myth.

How to Get Excellent Custom Challenge Coins?

Custom challenge coins have been getting more and more attention in the general public than they have before. These coins are special commemorative coins used by certain organizations in order to represent unity.

The tradition of challenge coinsCustom Challenge Coins can be traced back to the United States military. No one is sure as to where and when exactly the tradition began as there are so many different stories as to its origin. However, no one disputes the significance of challenge coins in improving the bonds between the members of a unit within the military.

Custom challenge coins have become increasingly popular outside of the military. There are those who like to have them minted to commemorate certain special occasions. Then there are those who have them minted to use them as a sign of affiliation. Organizations outside the military that use them include police, firemen, and so much more.

The problem with getting a challenge coin is that it can be difficult to find the right coin maker. There are so many different coin makers to choose from that finding the right one can cause a severe migraine. Below are a few tips for people who want to get themselves a new challenge coin.

Know what materials they can work with

Custom coins are each made using different metals. Each custom coin maker works with different materials. Not all coin makers are the same. The material that they can work with is one of the most important considerations people should take note of.

Some coin makers are capable of minting coins using various metals, such as silver, gold, bronze, nickel, and so much more. Some of the best coin makers in the industry have an online presence. Their websites often feature the kind of metals that they can work with.

Those interested in custom challenge coins can simply look at the different kinds of metals that shops offer and find out which type will best suit their needs. This is probably the best way for a person to find out which metal to choose, since websites often have galleries full of different samples.

Look at their past works

A lot of coin makers take pride in their work. The coin making business, as ironic as it may seem, is not about earning money. Sure these people operate for the sake of profit, but they didn’t enter the business to make tons load of money. They are in the coin making industry for the love of the craft.

Most of the coin makers in the industry are more than willing to show their works to prospective customers. This is one of the better ways a person can gauge the coin maker’s craft and abilities. It is also important to take note of the different branches of the military that they have worked with in the past.

A coin maker who has worked with the different branches of the military in the past is a good indicator that the said coin maker is an excellent craftsman. Few coin makers are commissioned by the different branches of the military.

Try to look for the value in their service

People should really look at the price of the coin relative to its value. Is the coin made out of some precious metal? What about the design work? Does the design feel generic or unique? Was the metalwork involved in making the coins of fine craftsmanship? Do they give enough coins for the price that they ask for?

These are just some of the questions people should ask themselves when they look for people who make custom challenge coins.

Author Bio:

Custom challenge coins have a distinguished history, dating back at least to World War I. If you’re shopping for military coins, Challenge Coins 4 Less is your one-stop, no-hassle solution to all your custom coin needs!

Getting Results You Need

When you are faced with different complex legal issues, it is important to have great, aggressive representation from an attorney on your side. Your lawyer should care about how your case turns out just as much as you care about it. With experienced attorneys from our firm, every available course of action will be pursued. With so many legal options available, you can rely on our lawyers to work with your case in a way that best benefits you!

attorneyIf you are looking for the best criminal attorney Salt Lake City can offer, look no further because we work to represent members of our community with years of experience. Since there are so many facets of criminal defense,  attorneys should be expected to have nothing but the best legal knowledge and familiarity with every aspect of our state legal system, so that the most positive solutions to each case can be found.

With a lawyer from our firm, we can provide any of the services that you need. Our lawyers offer quality service, unmatched in all areas of criminal defense. Whatever your legal issue, turn to your trusted attorneys. With personalized service, clients are appreciative of the guidance they receive. With so many lawyers available for criminal defense, might hand your case to many different people at another law firm, but not here. Here, we ensure that you can work with the same people, if at all possible, throughout the duration of your case. By personally returning all correspondence in the timeliest fashion, we can provide immediate access between you and those assigned to your case.

We understand that being accused of a crime is not only difficult for you, but for your family. That is why the sooner you seek the professional guidance of an attorney, the better. As a reputable firm in the area, we understand how Texas penalties are increasing continually and the additional pressure placed on prosecutors to get a conviction in each case. We will use all of our resources to ensure that your case ends on a positive note. Nothing is more important to our firm than defending your rights and ensuring that you are treated fairly under the law. No matter the side of criminal cases, we have the insight needed to anticipate tactics and strategies used by the prosecution.

Building the Case

No matter the stage of the case, we prepare it as though it were headed to trial. This means that every aspect of your case is immediately investigated. It is important to make sure there are no holes in your case, as prosecutors will use that to their advantage. Suppressing evidence which was illegally obtained and fighting for any opportunity for dismissal is just a small part of our many services.

With our firm, we will cover many criminal defense matters such as:

  •     Deportation actions against suspected criminals
  •     DWI
  •     Drug Crimes
  •     Bond hearings
  •     Expunctions
  •     Juvenile Crimes
  •     Probation violations
  •     Probation modifications
  •     Domestic violence
  •     Family Violence
  •     Serious felonies

No matter your case, our offices match you with lawyers whose backgrounds as just as diverse as the area of criminal defense law.

Author Bio

Criminal attorney Salt Lake City at Sharifi & Baron have handled hundreds of cases and won victories for our clients throughout the legal spectrum, including DUI cases in Utah, and those facing criminal charges.

Misting System: Effective Outdoor Cooling System

Do you constantly feel like the weather dictates how you will spend the rest of your day? Do you sometimes feel like it’s so hot outside that it is tough for you to decide whether or not you’d spend the day lounging around your patio or perhaps have a party there with family and friends? Does the sweltering heat of the sun keep you cooped up indoors? Sounds bad, right? You probably need to look into getting an outdoor cooling system for your patio.

Investing on a good misting system can change the way you spend your day outdoors. Most people who have experienced the benefits of a misting system don’t even know they would get by without it.

Get a high-pressure misting system for your patio

Although there are cheaper misting systems available in the market, they don’t necessarily work well for everyone. Connected to your garden hose, they act more like mini-sprinklers. Although they do provide some sort of relief from the hot weather, they tend to get everything and everyone slightly wet. Moreover, you don’t get as much cooling as you would in a high-pressure misting system as you would only experience about a 10- to 15-degree drop in the air temperature. This is why a high-pressure misting system is the better choice.

misting systemThe principle behind how a misting system operates is fairly simple. Fine droplets of water are forced into a specialized misting nozzle and sprayed into the air. This mist then rapidly evaporates and provides a cooling effect to the immediate environment. The finer the droplets the better the system’s cooling capacity. A high-pressure system will shoot out millions of finer droplets into the air and allow instant cooling of the surrounding space of up to 35 degrees.

How much would a high-pressure system cost you?

A quality misting system would, without a doubt, cost you a considerable amount of money. This is because you are assured of a more efficient cooling capacity and more durability and longevity. You can find cheaper systems in the market, but they won’t really be able beat the heat of the summer. Misting systems are rated based on how many hours they can continuously run and how much noise they make. Cheaper systems can run up to four to six hours and are really loud. A more advanced misting system can run up to 24 hours with minimal noise produced.

All things considered, high-pressure misting systems are favored by many despite the fact that they are more costly because of their effective cooling capacity. These systems are also made up of sturdier materials to be able to withstand very high pressures and they generally last longer, with proper maintenance, than their cheaper counterparts.

Nowadays, misting systems are gaining more and more popularity all across the board. Having a good misting system on your patio would enable you and your family to spend a greater amount of time catching up, playing, or just simply hanging out despite the heat of the sun. The bottom line is investing in an a good quality cooling system on your patio will not only allow you to spend more time outdoors but will also cost you less in the long run. Surf the internet or scout nearby stores to find a misting system that would work best for you.

How to Shop for Cheapest Best Dehumidifier

Being stressed and sticky during the height of the summer is really uncomfortable. Apparently, this is a result of too much humidity in the air during summer months. Air conditioning systems can certainly lessen the humidity in the air, but not all people want to use AC units because of varied reasons.

Hence, dehumidifiers are the best home appliances that can provide the best solutions to your problems. They can eliminate too much air moisture and lower the humidity levels without cooling the air. Most homeowners use the best dehumidifier to resolve damp basements. Plus, there are health problems connected with high levels of humidity such as allergies and respiratory issues. You may need to determine the different humidity levels in different parts of your home to know where to install dehumidifiers.

Best DehumidifierThere are numerous alternatives available when it comes to choosing the best dehumidifier for your home. Hence, it is best for you to first determine your need in order to make the best decisions. The most important thing to consider is the number of rooms or the area that needs to be dehumidified. For instance, if there are over two rooms that needs dehumidification, it is ideal to get a large unit for the whole house, rather than buying a few pieces of small units.

Some folks also prefer buying portable units so they can easily move them around in their home. If you also prefer this option, just make certain that you buy the best dehumidifier that has wheels to make it easier for you to move the unit. Bear in mind that there are many shapes, designs and sizes when it comes to home dehumidifiers.

It is also advisable to purchase the best dehumidifier that comes with a built-in humidistat that can regulate the moisture level of a room and will automatically turn off when the humidity level is low enough. Moreover, people with allergies may consider adding a filter to the unit so that they can avoid triggering their allergies.  Meanwhile, if you want to install the unit somewhere that is cold, it is best to buy a dehumidifier that is composed of a detector and can instantly switch off to prevent freezing while it is running.  Letting the appliance freeze may cause damage to the parts or the whole unit.

For people searching for affordable dehumidifiers, online stores are certainly the best place to shop. You can easily compare the prices and features from various manufacturers and brands to guide yourself in making the right choice.

Discount stores in your area are also great places you can find the best dehumidifier that will provide your home needs. It is best to make certain you will not be trapped by any expensive unit.  You can choose the best dehumidifier without compromising your budget.

Engaging and Satisfying Customer Support with Chat Service for Websites

The Customer Is Always Right

Install chat service for website and enjoy the benefits of providing instant customer support for your target market! Business organizations only last as long as the customers that support them – as such, it is the company’s responsibility to ensure that a customer’s browsing and purchasing experience becomes as convenient as possible. From a simple afterthought, customer support and service has evolved into an individual business function, becoming as critical a part of business as advertising or marketing. The element is called Customer Relationship Management, a specific branch of the company that focuses on providing customer support through various communication methods.

Providing Effective Customer Support Online

chat service for websiteThe first customer support techniques for the modern age came in the form of phone-based interaction, where a customer would call a company’s toll-free hotline and wait for customer support to respond. In today’s world of constant and immediate Internet accessibility, customer service soon become prominent through e-mail, where inquiries, replacement requests and other similar concerns could be sent through a company’s e-mail client, forwarding it into an e-mail account for perusing. However, both these methods can still be considered one-dimensional in terms of interaction: one party waits while the other party sends a message, with the roles simply being reversed during replies.

Chat Software – Making Strong Customer-Business Relationships

Why settle for these traditional methods of customer service when you can make use of chat service for website improvement? Most company websites often display attractive layouts and images, but sometimes forget to combine it with functionalities to increase its capability. Now, a business organization can maximize their Web investment by installing chat software for customers, personnel and potential buyers. A community of active customers not only shows an active interest for the product or service, but it also allows potential customers to make decisions on buying said product, transforming a “maybe” to an “I’ll take one of the those.”

Provide Affordable Customer Service with Chat Software

Chat service for website improvement also offers advantages when it comes to fulfilling customer-side needs. This effective Customer Relationship Management module allows you to maximize usage of the company website by turning it into a hub for real-time, instant communication between the business and the customer. Implementing chat service for website development provides the distinct advantage of enabling personnel to provide thorough assistance to any customer, no matter what the problem. Customers need not wait hours or even days for a response – a few seconds of waiting and an expert will have an answer for them.

Chat Software – Adding a Personal Touch to Customer Services

The customer’s needs drive the existence of a business – make sure that your company website is outfitted to handle and resolve these issues by obtaining software to establish instant connection and communication between both parties. Send a message of personal dedication through modern technology through chat software -with chat service for website improvement, your business organization’s online presence can become more distinguished than ever before.

Solo 401k: The Basics

If you are small business owner without employees or a sole proprietor and do not have a solo 401k retirement plan, then you are missing out on a great opportunity to save money for your future.  It is a great way to save and invest in your future and if your spouse is part of the business, then he or she can be included in the plan.  If you do not understand what this plan is all about, then here are the basics:

The solo 401k is a discretionary fund that will allow you to save money when business is booming but if you are going through some lean years, you do not have to put anything into the fund.  It is a relief to know that you will not be penalized for not having money to put into the fund.

solo 401k The contribution you make can be maximized or enhanced to your advantage because you can save for retirement both as an employee of the company and as an employer.  You and your spouse can put in as much as $49,000 every single year.  In addition, once you hit age 50 you are allowed to put in an additional $5500 as catch-up funds.  Considering that these are pre-tax dollars, it legally saves you from paying huge tax amounts to the government as well.  However, it is important to note that whenever you do withdraw the money you will be taxed.

A solo 401k as said above, allows you to save pre-tax dollars. The other advantage is that as long as you money is left in the retirement fund it will continue to grow in a tax deferred environment.  This means that you can get the most out of the growth and you will see your fund grow larger and larger from year to year.

If you are planning on starting to contribute this year then you will need to make sure that your fund is established by the last day of the year, December 31.  You don’t have to put in your contributions immediately, but you can delay them until the deadline for filing taxes which will likely be October 15 the next year.  So go ahead and set up your solo 401k even if you don’t have the funds right now, you don’t have to put in your contributions immediately and doing so will spur you into action.